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    Radio-frequency identification (RFID)

    • Author:Lily Li
    • Source:Oringin
    • Release on :2016-05-27
    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader's interrogating radio waves. Active tags have a local power source such as a battery and may operate at hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method for Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC).

    RFID frequency bands
    Band Regulations Range Data speed
    Remarks Approximate tag cost
    in volume (2006) US $
    120–150 kHz (LF) Unregulated 10 cm Low
    Animal identification, factory data collection $1
    13.56 MHz (HF) ISM bandworldwide 10 cm–1 m Low to moderate
    Smart cards (ISO/IEC 15693, ISO/IEC 14443 A,B). Non fully ISO compatible memory cards (Mifare Classic, iCLASS, Legic, Felica ...). Micro processor ISO compatible cards (Desfire EV1, Seos) $0.50 to $5
    433 MHz (UHF) Short Range Devices 1–100 m Moderate
    Defense applications, with active tags $5
    865-868 MHz (Europe)
    902-928 MHz (North America) UHF
    ISM band 1–12 m Moderate to high
    EAN, various standards $0.15 (passive tags)
    2450-5800 MHz (microwave) ISM band 1–2 m High
    802.11 WLAN, Bluetooth standards $25 (active tags)
    3.1–10 GHz (microwave) Ultra wide band to 200 m High Not Defined requires semi-active or active tags